Porcelain stoneware

Porcelain stoneware

f you're on this page, you're probably wondering what porcelain stoneware is? You probably want to know what types of porcelain stoneware exist? Or what its characteristics are, how it is made and why some porcelain stoneware tiles cost more than others.

Well, you've come to the right place. 

We will answer these questions and give you useful suggestions for choosing the right floor for your home, office or shop, and you will discover that it is not (only) aesthetic factors that influence the price of a tile, but many important technical factors.

Here are the topics that we will discuss in the article:

gres porcellanato, che cos'è?
Different types of porcelain stoneware: the types are discussed at the end of this article.

 

 

You'll find a lot of information here, and you can decide how much you want to know about this topic (I'll provide you with lots of links for further information).

Before leaving, let me introduce myself, I'm Michele Pellizzari, I'm one of the owners of Fratelli Pellizzari, a company that has been designing and installing ceramic tile floors in Vicenza and Verona for two generations (since 1967). 

Well, let's get started! 

 

Porcelain stoneware in a house in Gazzolo d'Arcole, Verona

Modern floor in a house in Gazzolo d'Arcole, Verona, made of large format light-coloured porcelain stoneware tiles. The invitation steps of the beautiful staircase were covered with the same material. Here are more photos of the house:

house in Gazzolo d'Arcole (VR)

Definition of porcelain stoneware

Let's start with the definition, which doesn't sound very friendly, but don't worry, we'll understand it together, word for word. 

Here it is:
The term "porcelain stoneware" (or fine porcelain stoneware) is defined as a "compact, dense, non-porous ceramic tile with high mechanical and abrasion resistance obtained thanks to selected, finely ground clays that are pressed and then fired at 1200° centigrade, the temperature at which greification takes place". 

gres porcellanato che cos'è? la definizione

 

 

Porcelain stoneware floors: house in Ronco all'Adige (Verona)

Cement-effect porcelain stoneware floors in the living area of Andrea and Lisa's house in Ronco all'Adige, where we did the floors and bathrooms. Here are more photos of their home:

Porcelain stoneware floors in Ronco all'Adige (Verona)

Why the name porcelain stoneware?

Well, let's try to understand this definition starting with the name.  
As I have written in brackets, the full name of this product is "fine porcelain stoneware". Let's start here. 

STONEWARE

The first word, "stoneware", is due to greification, that is, the physical process of compaction between the molecules which takes place during the firing of clay at a high temperature. 

gres porcellanato: la produzione delle piastrelle
Some porcelain stoneware tiles on conveyor belts in a phase of the production process which will be described in the next paragraph.

FINE

The adjective 'fine' should make us think of the microscopic size of the clays. These clays are in fact ground before being pressed and finally fired. 
Thanks to mills that grind the earth wet and thanks to the subsequent drying process using an atomizer, the particles of clay powder that are produced are so fine that they have the size and consistency of talcum powder.

Gres Porcellanato, argilla atomizzata
Precious clays are atomised, i.e. finely ground: they are the basic component of porcelain stoneware tiles.
 
PORCELAIN TILES

Finally, the word "porcelain" derives from the use of very fine white clays from England, Turkey or Russia, which were and are also used for the production of porcelain. In contrast to domestic clays, these new clays are purer and can withstand higher firing temperatures without any problems.  

As you may have guessed, this designation also has a "commercial" value:
► the word "stoneware" communicates strength, resistance 
►The word "fine" implies something subtle but also refined
► finally, "porcelain" is intended to convey the concept of precious and pure as porcelain.

Does that seem a bit clearer to you now? Wait, we are just at the beginning...

Vicenza: porcelain stoneware in a stunning restoration in Montegalda

A careful restoration has given new life to this beautiful house in Vicenza, where we made the floors in porcelain stoneware, as well as the bathrooms. Here you can see more photos of the house:

Renovation in Montegalda (Vicenza), floors and bathrooms

The production of porcelain stoneware

I have spoken in depth about the production process of porcelain stoneware tiles in a specific article - I will put the link at the end of this paragraph - so here I will limit myself to a quick reference to the stages of the production process.

Understanding the stages of the process is useful for understanding the second part of the definition of stoneware in the first paragraph, namely "...obtained thanks to selected and finely ground clays that are pressed and then fired at 1200° centigrade, the temperature at which greification takes place". 

1. Raw materials

The first stage involves procuring the raw materials: various types of clays (soils), rocks, quartz, feldspars and sands arrive from various countries and are stored in silos. Generally, a mixture of raw materials is used with a clay fraction, which has a plasticising function, an inert fraction with a structural and smoothing function (i.e. limiting shrinkage during drying and firing) and a carbonate or feldspar fraction with a melting function.

The selection and quality of the raw materials, the purity of the kaolin and minerals used, influence both the price of a porcelain stoneware and the technical characteristics it will have. There are companies that spend up to three times as much as others on clays and select them carefully, and others that focus only on cost.

Procuring raw materials
Grès porcellanato: la produzione, approvvigionamento delle materie prime

 

2. Dosing the mixture

Depending on the type of tile to be obtained, a precise mixture of raw materials is required, which must be obtained by careful dosing of the materials. Different companies (and different products) have their own different and original recipe that requires a certain amount of clay, rock, quartz and other minerals. To obtain this mixture, the raw materials are taken from the different silos and mixed together according to the recipe. Soil, sand and minerals are taken from the silos, weighed and placed in conveyor belts that take them to the grinding process.

Dosage of raw materials
Grès porcellanato, dosaggio delle materie prime

 

3. Grinding

The milling of the raw materials is carried out in special plants called 'continuous mills'. The raw materials are conveyed on belts into these mills, which contain water and grinding media (usually alumina balls or silica pebbles) that finely grind all the components of the recipe and mix them together. A liquid comes out of the mill, a watery suspension of the finely ground raw materials, with the density of a yoghurt, which is called ceramic slip. Wet milling, as described above, is the one that allows a finer crushing of the components.

In this case too, the price of stoneware will be higher if the company that produces it chooses to invest in the latest generation of continuous mills, but this will allow the production of a much more performing mixture, and a more resistant tile, than other cheaper but less performing technologies.

Grinding of clays and sands
Grès porcellanato, la produzione: macinazione

 

4. Atomisation

The next stage involves the drastic reduction of the water content to prepare the raw materials for the next stage, pressing. Dehumidification is carried out using a spray drying process, also known as atomisation. In simple terms, the slips are atomised inside the atomiser, which dries them instantly. The powder that comes out of the atomiser is a mixture of raw materials, perfectly and finely ground ready to be pressed.

Atomising the mixture
Grès porcellanato, produzione: l'atomizzazione dell'argilla

 

The pressing

Pressing is one of the most critical stages in the production process of porcelain stoneware: in this phase, the finely ground clay and mineral powder with a well determined humidity (between 4 and 7%) is deposited in the tray and undergoes a pressing of thousands of tons by an oleodynamic press. In the case of traditional tiles, the press lifts and presses down on the powders, usually twice. So the "raw" tile suffers two blows. Whereas in the case of large and very large porcelain stoneware tiles, pressing takes place by rolling; that is, the clays are pressed simultaneously by two rollers through which they are passed.

The higher the quality of a tile, the more powerful and state-of-the-art the press that produces it. In fact, a heavily pressed tile is more cohesive, more compact and denser. Clearly this influences the price of a porcelain stoneware tile.

Porcelain stoneware: the pressing
Grès porcellanato la pressatura della piastrella

 

Glazing

The glazing and decoration phase has undergone several innovations up to the recent introduction of digital "printers" which provide perfect detail and very high resolution.
We talked about it here: tiles and digital printing

Drying

The drying stage performs two important tasks: the first is to reduce the water content in the raw tile in order to prepare the stoneware for firing. Secondly, this phase guarantees an important reserve, a lung of raw tiles, ready for the kiln. We need a lot of dried tiles because we have to guarantee the necessary stock to "feed" the kiln day and night, all year round, including holidays. In fact, the kiln cannot be turned off, never, and it MUST be permanently filled with tiles to prevent the extremely high temperatures inside from causing it to collapse.

The drying phase of stoneware
La fase di essicamento del grès

 

Firing

By firing, ceramic materials acquire mechanical characteristics and chemical-physical requirements adapted to the various uses. The dried but still raw tile is transported into the mouth of the roller kiln and passes through its entire length. The firing curve is gradual so that the tile does not suffer any "traumas" during this very delicate phase. In the central part, the kiln of some companies can exceed 1200 degrees, a temperature at which even steel melts. The internal lining of the kiln and the rollers are, in fact, made of ceramic. It is the cooling phase in particular that must be handled with the utmost care. 

This is the phase which has the greatest influence on the price of porcelain stoneware. In fact, high gas costs have a direct impact on the price of the finished product and are all the higher the higher the firing temperature and the longer the firing time. A tile fired for a long time at high temperatures will have performances (and costs) that are not even comparable to a tile (which may be aesthetically similar) fired at low temperatures and for a shorter time.

Tunnel kiln for porcelain stoneware firing
produzione del gres: la fase di cottura

 

Selection and packaging of stoneware

The fired tile, after having undergone any other processing such as polishing, grinding or lapping, is ready to be checked for any defects or imperfections. But also to check that the shade is close (close because "the same" cannot be, a minimum tolerance is required) to that designed by the research and development department and included in the catalogue. The tiles are checked one by one, either using electronic scanners or, in some cases, by visual inspection by an employee, and are then ready for packaging. 

 

The selection phase
Grès porcellanato: la fase della scelta

Polishing or Lapping

Porcelain stoneware may undergo further processing to make its surface smoother (lapping) or shinier (polishing). For this purpose, abrasive wheels are used in a process that we have explained here: how to obtain lapped porcelain stoneware. Or here: types and production methods of polished porcelain stoneware

If you would like to learn more about each stage and the production process in more detail, you can find everything here:

the production process of porcelain stoneware 

The history of porcelain stoneware

One thing that may surprise you is that porcelain stoneware is not a recent invention. Stoneware has been around since the beginning of the 1900s and was very common in the middle of the last century.
Of course it is a distant relative of today's porcelain stoneware, but to understand how we arrived at today's products you need to know about it, so let me introduce you to the ancestor of porcelain stoneware: red stoneware

Il grès rosso

 

Red stoneware: the ancestor of porcelain stoneware

These were (and still are) small tiles produced solely from red clay, used solely as flooring in industrial environments, large commercial spaces, schools, cellars or terraces.
Even today, I still have to procure red stoneware tiles to fix floors in businesses, wine cellars or workshops that are paved with red stoneware. (fortunately it is still produced). 

Un pavimento in grès rosso


THE FORMAT

Red stoneware is really a prehistoric relative of today's porcelain stoneware, it seems light years away from the products we know today. 
It existed in a single colour, red, and was not glazed.
There were basically three sizes: 7.5x15; 10x20; 15x15.

THE COLOUR 

The colour of red stoneware was due to the use of only local clay, coming from the Modenese hills rich in red clay

CHARACTERISTICS

Despite the product's remarkable technical resistance, stoneware had a lack of aesthetics and could hardly be chosen as a floor covering for a house. Its small size and the only colour available made it a "poor" product and no one wanted it as a floor covering in their home. 


From stoneware to single firing

In the 1960s and 1970s, several attempts were made to produce larger stoneware tiles, but without success. 

These attempts came up against a number of technical problems: 
- larger sizes caused deformations during firing;
- there were no machines capable of decorating the stoneware and improving its aesthetics;
- the red clay could not be pigmented and there was no possibility of mixing it with other clays, so it was not possible to colour/decorate the tile mass either.

Red stoneware continued to be a marginal product, reserved for industrial use (so much so that some called it "industrial stoneware") or in any case limited, and single-fired tiles became popular, which were chosen and laid in all homes until the 1990s and which made this product almost disappear from the commercial offer. 

If you want to know more about the history and diffusion of single-firing, you can find all the information here:

the single-firing

La monocottura



From single-firing to porcelain stoneware

At the end of the century, a series of technical innovations proposed by the Italian mechano-ceramic sector combined with the availability of valuable clays from other countries enabled a revolution.

Gres porcellanato, la pressatura isostatica
Detail of an isostatic pad for the press: one of the innovations that allowed the birth of porcelain stoneware.

Experiments were resumed and stoneware began to be produced in larger sizes, in different colours, even with decorations on the surface... 

Fine porcelain stoneware was born. 

If you want to learn more about the historical aspects and see all the innovations that have transformed the ceramic tile sector, I have written an article dedicated to this: 

the history of tile

Why has porcelain stoneware become popular?

Thanks to its new formats and colours, porcelain stoneware competes with single-fired tiles, which it manages to catch up with and outclass in just a few years thanks to its better technical performance.

gres porcellanato in un centro commerciale

Porcelain stoneware is spreading not only in environments where certain parameters of resistance are required - such as industries or high-traffic commercial environments - but also, progressively, in shops, offices and residential environments. 

In this article you will find data and statistics on the growth of porcelain stoneware:

the spread of porcelain stoneware

Types of porcelain stoneware tiles

We can classify the various products obtained with this production technology in at least three different ways:

  • AESTHETIC CLASSIFICATION
  • CLASSIFICATION BY TYPE OF PRODUCT
  • CLASSIFICATION BY INTENDED USE

The aesthetic classification is the one that most interests the end customer and is the easiest to understand. The aesthetics of the tile can be extremely simple and repetitive or it can reach high levels of complexity and have a natural appearance that is the result of the combination of many different decorations and shades.

Wood-effect porcelain stoneware

The best-selling type at the moment is wood-effect porcelain stoneware: a tile that imitates wood both in size and surface decoration. The digital decoration reproduces the grain, patterns and shades of different types of parquet, whether rustic, classic or modern. Wood-effect tiles are seldom in small format, more frequently in the elegant plank effect, thus reproducing the wood planking. They can be laid either in a single format or in "multiformat" to make the parquet effect even more realistic. Wood-effect tiles can be rectified and bevelled or have a - more economical - "natural edge".
You will find much more information in the link on the right:

Stone effect porcelain stoneware

Another popular family of porcelain stoneware tiles is stone-effect porcelain stoneware. The fact that it imitates stone, and therefore has an irregular, rough surface, allows us to make excellent products for exteriors with non-slip characteristics. These, together with the low absorbency and therefore frost resistance of porcelain stoneware, make it possible to create outdoor floors with a very long lifespan. But the stone effect can also be obtained with a smoother, or lapped, surface, so that it can also be used indoors and become a covering for a bathroom or wellness area, or a beautiful floor in a home where a combination with natural materials is sought.

In the link to the side you will find ideas and solutions in which stone-effect porcelain stoneware has been used:

Marble-effect porcelain stoneware

Some materials are imitated to perfection by porcelain stoneware, such as polished or matt marble. Marble-effect porcelain stoneware is one of the products in which the resemblance to the original will put even an expert stonemason to the test. Thanks to modern digital glazing techniques combined with ultra-high resolution photos, thanks to large formats and techniques for obtaining perfect polished tiles, marble-effect porcelain stoneware slabs are now obtained that can be used both for high-value floors and to cover bathroom walls with elegance.
In the button on the right you will find many ideas, projects and realisations in which we have used marble effect stoneware tiles and slabs:

Cement-effect porcelain stoneware

The search for minimal surfaces capable of generating neutral backgrounds for hypermodern furnishings has inspired ceramic tile designers to present different types of cement-effect porcelain tiles. Once again, stoneware can very accurately imitate the surface of a smooth or polished concrete, but also a formworked or aged concrete. As always, the more expensive product will be characterised by a large number of different graphics and a careful combination of the different tones, while the cheaper products are more repetitive and "fake". You can find much more information in the link to the dedicated article:

Venetian effect stoneware

The Venetian-style floor was created between 1500 and 1600 in Venice and became popular both for its technical aspects and for its refined aesthetics and decorative possibilities. Today it is re-proposed thanks to digital decoration on large and very large format stoneware. It is available in different versions: very fine-grained or with larger fragments of marble, in traditional colours but also in new and original colours. Solid colour or with variegated colours and decorations.

Resin-effect stoneware

Resin floorign became very popular about ten years ago. The reasons for their success were the ease with which they could be applied by overlaying existing floors and walls, the lack of joints and the neutral shades which, combined with a smooth "coat", met with the favour of the public and professionals. A few problems which have arisen over time, especially due to the lack of resistance to scratching and wear from walking on the floor, have highlighted the limits of the product. Today stoneware is proposed as a more resistant and durable alternative, even if it requires a joint between one tile and another, even if it is large or very large.

 

Metallic effect porcelain stoneware

Metal-effect porcelain stoneware tiles reproduce, sometimes with extreme realism, metal plates in iron, bronze or copper. They can become a perfect floor for a modern office or match an industrial decor or, finally, allow us to design a "technological" bathroom. The best quality tiles also imitate the metallic reflections of the slabs or the marks left by processing or, finally, the stains and shades of time.

Textile effect stoneware

Carpets and needlepunched carpets were used for many years in homes, only to be discontinued and forgotten in the late 1970s. The advantages of these materials were their softness when walked on and their excellent acoustic behaviour, which made them the choice for the sleeping areas of homes. The problems were basically that they were difficult to clean and therefore unhygienic. Despite the fact that great progress has been made today in both floor textiles and cleaning machinery, these products are only chosen for professional use, for example as floors in hotel rooms, but are rarely found in homes. Fabric effect porcelain stoneware is an easy-to-clean and hygienic alternative, although of the various materials that porcelain stoneware can imitate, fabric is the most "difficult".

Fabric effect porcelain stoneware

il grès porcellanato effetto tessuto

 

Stoneware wallpaper effect

Very large stoneware tiles can also imitate the decorations and designs of wallpaper, whether modern or more traditional and classic, such as Rubelli. The wallpaper effect stoneware lends itself to enhancing corners of your home, the wall of the stairwell, a bathroom wall or the wall of the living room. Compared to paper, stoneware is more durable, easier to clean, not afraid of stains and moisture. Click on the button on the right to find more useful hints and tips.

Florentine terracotta effect stoneware


Fiorentine terracotta floors had their heyday in the 1970s and 1980s when the demand for rustic floors reached their peak. In those years terracotta floors were imitated both by single-fired tiles and by the first porcelain stoneware tiles which, compared to the natural product, offered greater mechanical resistance and, above all, solved the problem of the absorbency of terracotta floors. Today you can still choose whether to use a traditional Tuscan terracotta floor or opt for a stoneware tile that imitates the surface, colour and shade.

Terracotta-effect porcelain stoneware

grès effetto cotto

 

Stoneware with cementine effect

Cementines are ancient floor tiles that were used in the early 1900s. The tiles were made of cement mixtures of various colours, poured into metal moulds. Cementines were used to create richly decorated floors in line with the trends of the time. Today, the same aesthetics are achieved thanks to the digital decoration of porcelain stoneware, which makes it possible to reproduce cementine floors.

Solid colour stoneware

This stoneware is perfectly homogeneous in thickness, it has no decorative surface layers and the surface colour, like that of the body of the tile, is obtained from a suitably studied mixture of clays. Solid colour stoneware is available in both matt and polished versions and can be used for floors, for example in public places or shopping centres, as well as for simple coloured coverings.

grès porcellanato a tutta massa

Glossy or matt stoneware in solid colours

Fine-grained full-body porcelain stoneware

Fine-grained porcelain stoneware, also known as granite or speckled granite, also belongs to the family of full-body porcelain stoneware. These products are obtained by mixing finely ground clays with small clay "balls". Once fired, the tile has dots throughout its thickness similar to granite. Fine-grained speckled stoneware can be used, in the opaque version and in high thickness, as a floor tile for the garage, thanks to its excellent mechanical resistance. But we also find them in supermarkets and high traffic premises.

Grès porcellanato a grana fine

Fine-grained dotted stoneware

Coarse-grained stoneware

A variant of fine-grained stoneware is coarse-grained stoneware. In this case, clay "balls" of different colours are inserted into the raw mix before pressing. Once fired in the kiln, full-body tiles with coarse-grained grit will have different coloured granules on the surface and in the body of the tile. These unglazed products are particularly resistant and suitable for use in high traffic areas such as supermarkets, laboratories and industries.

Grès porcellanato graniti a grana grossa

Full-body, coarse-grained stoneware

Different processes on stoneware

Stoneware tiles differ not only in appearance but also in some of the various processes that they may undergo during or at the end of the production process.

Some of these processes also give the product its name, for example a tile that imitates marble and that has undergone a polishing process will be called "polished stoneware with marble effect".

Let's take a look at the best known ones:

►  Stoneware glazing

In these stoneware tiles, the surface layer is created by applying glaze to the raw clay body. In this way, much more aesthetically pleasing products are obtained at the expense, however, of uniformity in thickness. The product can no longer be defined as "full body" as it consists of two layers, the tile body and the glaze.

In the event of deep wear of the surface layer, the body of the tile will appear different in the worn areas compared to the rest of the floor, just as in the event of chipping of the surface the difference between the decorated part and the body of the tile will be evident.

more: glazed porcelain stoneware

Grès porcellanato smaltato


►  Polishing stoneware

Polished porcelain stoneware is a tile that undergoes a special process when it comes out of the kiln that makes the surface perfectly shiny, like a mirror. This finish is obtained thanks to rotating, finer-grained abrasive heads that smooth the surface of the stoneware to give it the same mirror-like shine as marble or granite. These tiles reflect light and are suitable for commercial spaces or representative offices, but also for elegant and refined homes, where they can imitate precious marbles and onyxes. The disadvantage of polished stoneware tiles is the slipperiness of the floor. 

read more: "polished porcelain stoneware"

Grès porcellanato superficie levigata

 
►  Lapping stoneware

Lapping is a mechanical smoothing operation of a stoneware tile that makes it easier to clean, slightly more slippery and a little more reflective than a tile with a "natural" surface.
This process can be aimed at obtaining a tile with a homogeneously smooth surface, or lapping can produce slight undulations on the tile, consuming the surface in a differentiated manner. In this way it is possible to imitate the trampling of many years on stone floors.

read more: "lapped porcelain stoneware"

Il grès porcellanato lappato

 

 

Porcelain stoneware formats

Porcelain stoneware tiles exist in a wide variety of formats. The most common, at the time of the birth of this technology, were 20x20 and 30x30. These initial formats were later joined by 30x60 and 60x60, which until a few years ago were the "standard" for floors and walls.

More recently, large sizes such as 60x120 or 80x80 have become popular, and in more recent times there have been very large sizes such as stoneware in the 120x120 size for floors and large slabs in the 120x280 size for walls.

Thicknesses have also changed from the classic 1 cm thickness of the first stoneware tiles to thinner thicknesses for use as overlays, or to thicker tiles for heavy-duty use or for "floating" installation.

Let's start by looking at some interesting types of stoneware, starting with thick stoneware:

►  High thickness stoneware 

The "standard" thickness of the tiles is about 10 millimetres. But the production process of stoneware today makes it possible to produce both thinner and thicker tiles. 
High thickness stoneware is usually produced 20 millimetres (two centimetres) thick, although some companies are experimenting with 3 centimetres. 
It is mainly used as a floating or raised floor to be laid on plastic caps with adjustable thickness. It guarantees walkability even in the absence of a subfloor. 

more: "thick stoneware"

Grès porcellanato ad alto spessore


► Laminated stoneware

Like normal porcelain stoneware, laminated stoneware is produced by grinding, pressing and firing clays. But the pressing takes place in a different way.
While in traditional stoneware the press pad lowers and raises by exerting a force on the tray containing the clay, in laminated stoneware, on the other hand, the clay passes through two cylinders that compress it while it runs on a belt.

This "continuous" pressing, combined with slightly different raw materials, makes it possible to obtain thinner ceramic tiles, which are useful in many situations. Think, for example, of overlapping on existing floors or the ease of laying large wall tiles because of the lower weight required.

Read more:

the production of laminated stoneware

Grès porcellanato laminato: la pressa


► Large porcelain stoneware slabs

The production process of laminated stoneware described above makes it possible to obtain ceramic slabs of large or very large dimensions, up to 120 centimetres by 360 centimetres. This product is revolutionising the wall tile market, but it also allows ceramic tiles to be used in other areas, such as furniture or the external cladding of buildings.

more: "large porcelain stoneware slabs" 

Le grandi lastre in grès porcellanato

 

Porcelain stoneware: classification by areas of use

Porcelain stoneware tiles can be used in various situations and areas, for example:


► Porcelain stoneware as a floor covering for houses interiors.

Gres porcellanato come pavimento per interni

 

Stoneware flooring in Arzignano, Vicenza

I remember that they didn't think much of it for the floor in the living area, it was a real eye-opener! 
A surface in tones of metallic grey, slightly shiny... an industrial but textured effect.

stoneware flooring in arzignano, Vicenza 

Rustic stoneware in a house in Vicenza

As always, Martina has clear ideas and it doesn't take long before we are able to identify the perfect floor for the living area that matches the style of kitchen she had in mind. It is a multiform stone effect stoneware with a warm colour: you can feel the warmth of this house. 

rustic stoneware in a house in Vicenza

► Stoneware for bathroom floors and walls 

Gres per pavimento e rivestimento di bagni

 

Bathroom in large stoneware slabs in Montecchio

Large ceramic slabs resembling resin with metallic reflections...


Bathroom in large stoneware slabs at montecchio

► Stoneware tiles for the external floors of the house

Gres porcellanato per utilizzo nei pavimenti esterni di casa

 

External flooring in a swimming pool in Vicenza

Finding a modern tile for the swimming pool floor is not difficult, the range of porcelain tiles with a structured non-slip surface is immense: we can range from cement effect porcelain to stone imitation or wood effect tiles. 
However, the vast choice available risks confusing the customer.

outdoor flooring in a swimming pool in Vicenza

Outdoor stoneware in Ronco all'Adige

For the outdoor areas of the house and for the swimming pool area, we can almost immediately find a stone effect stoneware that everyone likes: modern, with a structured surface, which we will lay with adhesive on a screed.

outdoor stoneware for swimming pools in Ronco all'Adige

Wood-effect stoneware for exteriors in Vicenza

 

Wood-effect stoneware will add warmth and practicality to this outdoor space, making it liveable and welcoming...

 

wood-effect stoneware for exteriors in Vicenza

► office floors, as in these 4 interventions:

Stoneware office floors in Valdagno (Vicenza)

The floor chosen for the entire office building in Valdagno is a technical stoneware with a 75x75 size and an innovative surface suitable for modern, refined environments.

stoneware floors for offices in valdagno (vicenza)

Office floors in Cornedo (Vicenza)

The flooring and furniture had to reflect the idea of a young, dynamic mechanical engineering company specialising in a high-tech sector. A company where design and consultancy services also count.

floors for offices in Cornedo (Vicenza)

Stoneware offices floors in Quinto Vicentino (Vicenza)

More than 3,000 square metres of floor space in the refurbished offices were paved with modern, large-format porcelain tiles. 
The tiles had to guarantee excellent mechanical and abrasion resistance.

STONEWARE OFFICE FLOORS IN Quinto Vicentino (Vicenza)

Offices floors in Chiampo (Vicenza)

After a couple of weeks, the client informed us that the best material from the point of view of soiling was grey stoneware...

floors for offices in Chiampo (Vicenza)

Raised floors for offices

Raised floors for offices in Vicenza and Verona

An in-depth look at the characteristics, advantages, installation methods and prices of this type of flooring, which we lay in public areas in Vicenza, Verona and Padua.

porcelain stoneware for raised floors

► Stoneware tops for bathroom furniture

Bathroom cabinet with stoneware top installed in this renovation in Vicenza

The generous wall-mounted cabinet with drawers with stoneware top meets the couple's need for modernity but also for storage space, topped by a large mirror which contributes to giving the bathroom space.

bathroom cabinet with porcelain stoneware top, home renovation in vicenza

► Stoneware kitchen worktops

Kitchen with stoneware top, home renovation in Vicenza

The kitchen top in dove-grey stoneware, a very dark colour, contrasts with the brightness and basic colour of the Venetian blind.

Porcelain stoneware kitchen top, renovated house in Vicenza

► Bar counters or furniture elements

Porcelain stoneware bar counters

If you are looking for a product to cover the counter unit of your bar, you will find some ideas and suggestions in the photo galleries. In particular, we have concentrated on the product we think is currently the best solution for your bar counter: porcelain stoneware.

Bar counter in porcelain stoneware

► Porcelain stoneware tables

Porcelain stoneware tables

An in-depth study where you will discover the characteristics, processing and prices of a porcelain stoneware table. Browse through all the photos in the gallery at the bottom!

porcelain stoneware tables

► House exterior coverings

Thank you!


Thank you for reading this in-depth study, I hope I have satisfied your curiosity a little. If you would like to help me grow this page, please let me know - below in the comments - about content you would like to see examined. If you have any questions or doubts, don't hesitate to ask me. 

And if you live in the Vicenza or Verona area, come and visit me in our shops:

FRATELLI PELLIZZARI spa
VIA VIGNAGA, 31
36071 ARZIGNANO (Vicenza)

[email protected]

 Appointments are appreciated and recommanded

FRATELLI PELLIZZARI spa
VIALE EUROPA, 2
36053 GAMBELLARA (Vicenza)

[email protected]

Appointments are appreciated

 

 

Porcelain stoneware, advice on use as a floor covering

By combining the different processes, the raw materials used, the different formats and the aesthetic decorations, it is possible to obtain the most varied types of stoneware tiles that will be suitable for the most diverse uses.

 

Grès porcellanato: le tipologie
 
Solid-coloured, fine-grained or coarse-grained porcelain stoneware -> garages, workshops, cellars

These are the first stoneware tiles to arrive on the market: they are dyed in the mass, using coloured clays. Extremely simple, they can be combined with each other to create multicoloured bathrooms, or glossy and matt surfaces can be combined. At the moment they are not in great demand in the residential sector, but there is still a demand for them in environments where excellent mechanical resistance combined with a simple and linear aesthetic is required. These products are usually available in high thicknesses, from 12 to 20 millimetres, for customers who are more interested in high mechanical resistance than in aesthetics: machine shops, garages, chemical laboratories, dairies or slaughterhouses, floors in wine cellars... this type of stoneware is perfect for these technical uses.

 
Wood-effect porcelain stoneware--> homes, shops, hotels, B&Bs

But porcelain stoneware is also emerging as an alternative to wooden floors: here too, the large sizes, the "table" format and the digital graphics make it possible to obtain extremely realistic products.
If we consider that stoneware is characterised by total indifference to humidity, greater resistance to scratching and wear and a lower price compared to parquet, it is easy to understand why stoneware flooring has "stolen" a good slice of the market even from parquet flooring. Due to its technical characteristics, this product is not only suitable for residential use but also for hotel and bed & breakfast rooms. Wood-effect porcelain stoneware is also used to floor shops where a warm, natural atmosphere is required, but with the strength and durability of stoneware.

 
Stone effect porcelain stoneware -> outdoor floors, hotel wellness centres, rustic environments, kitchen tops, cellars

Recent innovations, especially digital decoration technology, allow stoneware to perfectly imitate slates and stones with a natural split surface. Stoneware tiles become an alternative and a competitor to these stone materials. The lower price and non-absorbency are important weapons that allow stoneware to grow at the expense of natural materials. The larger formats also make it a formidable competitor for bathroom tops or kitchen countertops, where it is stealing market share from marble producers. The natural appearance of stone makes it perfect for use in spas or wellness centres, both professional and domestic, as well as for creating bathrooms with a reassuring "zen" look. Stone-effect porcelain stoneware is also suitable, in the non-slip version, for outdoor use.


Fabric effect porcelain stoneware -> bedrooms, bathroom floors

Fabric effect porcelain stoneware is a product that imitates carpet or other types of fabric, even with "plaid" or other types of decoration. The digital decoration is so realistic that when you walk on these tiles you expect them to be soft and to sink with your foot. Fabric effect stoneware flooring is an excellent alternative to wood in bedrooms or the entire night area and is also pleasant as a bathroom floor in the night area.

 

Concrete-effect porcelain stoneware -> modern homes, clubs or industrial restaurants

A very up-to-date product is cement-effect porcelain stoneware: tiles, usually of large format, which look like smooth concrete floors. In some cases even with the formwork effect, i.e. with the marks of the reinforcement boards in the walls. Other stoneware tiles imitate old, ruined cement with marks, scratches and abrasions. Others reproduce the stains and wear of a concrete floor in a machine shop. Depending on whether cement-effect stoneware is monochrome or more "industrial/brutalist", it can be used in different contexts: modern homes with minimalist furnishings, trendy shops, industrial-style restaurants, etc.

 
Resin-effect stoneware -> minimalist homes, shop walls, ventilated facades

Resin-effect stoneware imitates the resinisation of a vertical or horizontal surface. The tiles show the typical marks of the operator's trowel action. The most common colours for these products are almost all neutral colours ranging from light grey to dove grey to darker greys. In this case too, our customers prefer large formats because there are fewer joints.

 

Metal effect stoneware -> offices of mechanical engineering companies, modern bathrooms, young clothing shops

Another popular product is stoneware imitating metal, which is also usually sold in large sizes and imitates steel, rusty iron (corten effect) or copper. We offer them not only as floor tiles but also as wall tiles in modern bathrooms.

Approfondimenti

  • Flaviker presents a new collection: Hangar, a concrete effect porcelain stoneware. This type of stoneware is suitable in different kind of locations, indoor or outdoor, in residences or in offices. We wait you in our shops if you want some more information.