The function of stairs in the exterior of the house is to facilitate the vertical movement of people around the building, allowing them to overcome differences in height.
External stairs can be of various types, for example:
- entrance staircases
- secondary stairs
- external stairs leading to an entrance on an upper floor
The last type of staircase is perhaps the least common nowadays because the tendency is to insert stairs leading to upper floors inside. This was not the case in the 1960s when many houses had an external flight of stairs made of concrete or metal, on which concrete or stone steps were then placed.
The most common types of stairs are the first ones, those that compensate for a slight difference in level in the garden between the living area and the street. The entrance staircase has a decisive influence on the home and must be carefully studied and designed. It is usually connected to an entrance, which can be a porch, and to the pavement that surrounds the house.
Generally in this type of staircase, the calculation for determing the riser and tread provides for deeper treads and slightly lower risers. The width of the staircase/ pathway is usually about 100/120 centimetres and the materials chosen range from porphyry to prun stone and porcelain stoneware.
External service stairs are used as a connection between the ramp of the driveway and the pavement of the house, or to compensate for the different levels of the pavement, or at the back of the house to connect the living area to private play or relaxation areas. In these cases, deep steps are generally not created, but the ratio between riser and tread is the classic one (30 cm tread and 18 cm riser).